By Angela Lovell Contributor . Independent comparative data on variety performance for hay is limited. In some years oaten hay for export or domestic purposes can be can be more profitable than grain. This has seen growers cut too late late and deliver poor quality hay. or increase hay and silage production. In early spring or fall, weed and till the planting area. Specialist cultivars for hay production are being developed to meet export quality specifications for Australia’s growing oaten hay export trade to Southeast Asia. Oats can be intercropped for silage and autumn grazing, and used as fodder for swath grazing. Adding hay or roughage to the diet will slow down animal performance as the animal substitutes the When planning for hay cutting it is important to consider rain events. UNL web framework and quality assurance provided by the, Apply to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Give to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Explore Beef (The People. Also, we bale the straw for cow bedding. Preparing for Planting Winter Wheat in Land Not Planted this Spring. Please note: This content may be out of date and is currently under review. Oats sown at a rate of 1 to 1½ bushels (32-48 lbs.) Oats might be your answer. The best way to grow oats is to find an area where the soil has a pH between 6 and 7. "However, growth and vigor are typically greater where pre-plant tillage is used." Sudden respiratory problems can occur. they’ve now become a high-quality and very productive forage crop! The grain should not contain more than 13 percent moisture for safe storage. Calves and yearlings can gain over two pounds per day. Some oat varieties do not meet the exporters standard and therefore will not be accepted for delivery. Oat can be planted in late winter through early spring for use as forage or hay and offer some help for increasing a short forage supply. When monitoring hay crops to determine when to cut: Some hay varieties (such as Winteroo) maintain a green plant colour throughout the milky dough stage. . Some of your best forage growth may still be ahead of you. A fully prepared seedbed usually is best, but you can plant oats directly into wheat stubble or other crop residues if weeds are killed ahead of planting. For hay, cut oats soon after plants begin to dry out following a killing freeze, or cut earlier if plants reach a desirable growth stage. Planting rates should be adjusted for germination, seed size and percentage establishment in the To reduce disease pressure and optimize yields, oats should not be grown after cereals. These include earlier cutting times, green hay colour, low moisture content, freedom from weeds and thin-strawed varieties. Eight tips for growing perfect oats. Store the oats in a warm, dry area while curing them. The option of oats for hay is becoming increasingly popular in some regions where growers have identified it as profitable and as a tool to manage herbicide resistance. Drill three to four bushels into new fields for hay. Rake soil over the seeds and keep the soil moist. Growers should check exporters' specific requirements if they are interested in this market. IT’S RAINING HAY! The Legacy. It’s August and fall is just around the corner. Many farmers rely on oats to fatten livestock during the period from autumn to early spring. Take the top floret and squeeze between the tops of your fingers. Spread out a tarp or sheet and then either stomp the oats loose from the stalks (cover the oats first before tromping all over them) or use some other implement, like a plastic baseball bat, to thresh the oats from the stalks (chaff). The Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development's 2018 Oat Variety Guide provides a comparison of grain yield, grain quality, hay yield, hay quality, herbicide tolerance and disease resistance for new and established milling oat varieties. The recommended planting rates are 25 – 50 kg KEY: / ha dryland and 50 – 75 kg / ha irrigated. Oats were grown on only 265,000 acres in North Dakota in 2018. To thicken existing hay fields, drill about one to two bushels per acre as soon as possible directly into the existing crop. The resultant scouring is normal when stock are grazing on highly digestible, high-moisture, green feed. Research has shown that the optimum time for cutting oaten hay is at the watery ripe stage (Z71), the earliest stage of milk development. To learn about harvesting your oats, scroll down! Fall grown oats have great potential, but results can be highly variable from year to year, and two weather-related factors appear to be critical for maximizing yields. Plain old dull oats. The Land. In Koehler’s case, he underseeded red clover with oats in both 2018 and 2019. Last year with the weather, we weren't able to get it in until June. When oats are grown for hay or silage, fertility recommendations are similar to those for grain production -- 75-125 lbs of nitrogen per acre. Use of a co is a gompanion crood p option where weeds may be conern. Oats can springboard cover crops off to a good start after harvest in late July or August. However, summer seeded oats tend to mature more slowly as days shorten in the fall, so may require an additional 10 days or so. Check the crop every two days and then daily as development gets closer. Then, lay the oat seeds 1/4 inches apart in rows. Once the kernels are ripe, you can thresh out the oats. A watery green substance will come out when it is at the watery ripe stage (Z71). For hay, cut oats soon after plants begin to dry out following a killing freeze, or cut earlier if plants reach a desirable growth stage. This option is often considered either when forage is short or when the soybean crop is damaged for harvest as a grain crop (for example. If you have good soil moisture, give fall oats a try. ), The National Academies Press: Agriculture. This oat hay produces a high protein feed suitable for cattle, horses and sheep. Oats planted beyond early July won’t get a young farmer out of the classroom, but these aren’t your grandpa’s oats . Many processors recommend cutting at this stage as quality declines significantly after the water ripe stage. Oats can accumulate nitrates, so test hay before feeding. Forage is grazed before stem elongation, allowing the crop to recover and produce grain for harvest. Selecting appropriate cutting time is critical in achieving this standard whilst maintaining hay yield and quality. High yields and good milling quality are what most oat producers strive for, and achieving these goals may depend on where they are grown and under what kind of production system. Oats are sometimes grazed, but the main use is for hay and silage, fulfilling an important role as feed for livestock operations in the Northern Great Plains of North America. Oats can accumulate nitrates, so test hay before feeding. But be careful to avoid grass tetany on lush oat pasture; ask your veterinarian if you should supplement with magnesium. . Re: Growing/sowing oats for hay in reply to randy hall, 07-13-2012 19:30:23 I don't know about Va. but in Texas many acres of Oats are planted in the Fall and either grazed out,harvested for grain or baled for hay. The forage also helps nix erosion by covering the soil longer into the growing season. Anderson calls oats “one of our most under-used fall forages.” He favors it because it grows fast, thrives under cool fall conditions, has good feed value, and can produce over 2 tons of hay … However, this option can be somewhat expensive with substantial risk involved due to weather, insects and diseases. The best rotational crops include canola, hay, soybeans and other legumes. Forage oats is the main winter forage crop in Queensland due to its ability to produce good-quality feed when most pastures are dormant. The addition of peas to oats or other small grains including barley or triticale grown for forage does not necessarily improve yield, although it can increase yields from 0-0.5 tons dry matter per acre. A shortened version of the URL, helpful when communicating the URL over email or verbally. Some oat varieties do not meet the exporters standard and therefore will not be accepted for delivery. It grows fast, thrives under cool fall conditions, has good feed value, and can produce over 2 tons of hay or pasture yet this year. Growing oats in Western Australia for hay and grain Raj Malik Blakely Paynter Cindy Webster Amelia McLarty Follow this and additional works at: https://researchlibrary.agric.wa.gov.au/bulletins Part of the Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health Commons, Plant Breeding and Genetics Commons, and the Weed Science Commons Certain precautions should be taken to store oats away from rodents, and … Oats may be one of our most under-used fall forages. Oats can accumulate nitrates, so test hay before feeding. Published: May 2, 2011 Cereals, Features. Related Articles. Dual-purpose oat cultivars are widely used in Australia for grazing. The harvested forage is generally higher in quality and more palatable to animals than oats grown alone. Avoid fields with herbicide carryover, and topdress 40 pounds of nitrogen per acre unless the previous crop was heavily fertilized. Some producers plant a mixture of oats … In winter oat growing areas, oats are integrated into pasture-silage systems. Page last updated: Thursday, 5 October 2017 - 1:39pm, Oats: hay quality for export and domestic markets, AFIA - Australian Fodder Industry Association, Biosecurity and Agriculture Management Act, Western Australia's agriculture and food sector, Casual, short-term employment and work experience. This article appeared in the August/September 2017 issue of Hay & Forage Grower on page 30. These include earlier cutting times, green hay colour, low moisture content, freedom from weeds and thin-strawed varieties. If you have good soil moisture, give fall oats a try. By Steve Barnhart, Department of Agronomy Oats have been an important crop in Iowa. Typically, two-thirds of the oats planted are harvested for grain and the rest is grown primarily for forage/hay. Mow and c a remove oatosot stage o at b graze lightly whr n e oats are 10 inches high. In this area we explore using oats to produce high quality export hay. Oats for hay should be harvested when the grain is in the soft dough stage. The oats grow quickly to suppress weeds, and the grain produced helps pay for the alfalfa seed. he bT oot sta ge i when s there is a lump in the stalk but the head has not yet growing conditions are highly digestible and often contain 80%–85% moisture (15%–20% dry matter). Oats normally require about 60 days of growth following germination to reach the boot-stage. Export markets demand bright green, dry hay. Oats might be the answer, suggests University of Nebraska Extension forage specialist Bruce Anderson. Oats for hay can also be sown in a cross fashion (in two directions) to accommodate more plants which aids in reducing stem thickness and weed population. The oats are planted in the spring of the year and cut and harvested for hay in the early summer. Farmers can … That's right. Some of your best forage growth may still … Pull any weeds that pop up as the oats grow. Optimum-planting time for forage oats is from late March to Early April. Or, oats planted under irrigation can be cut for hay early enough to permit double cropping to soybeans or a summer annual forage crop or even to corn for silage. Walk into the crop and check a number of areas of the paddock. For hay, cut oats soon after plants begin to dry out following a killing freeze, or cut earlier if plants reach a desirable growth stage. If you have good soil moisture, give fall oats a try. Hay — Oat should be cut for hay at early heading to maximize yield and quality. He sold the red clover – that subsequently grew after oat harvest – for hay in the fall. These varieties needs to monitored to ensure they are cut at the right time to optimise quality. Organise contractors to cut hay as soon as possible after water ripe, keeping in mind rainfall events. In recent years, as market demands and cropping systems have changed, oats are more often being harvested as hay or silage for livestock. Cutting at this stage will deliver the best compromise between yield and quality. Could you use some extra pasture or hay in late September and October? Perhaps the most important factor is ensuring that adequate soil moisture exists to facilitate quick germination. There are specific requirements for hay for the export market that are different to usual on-farm requirements. Oats and peas can be planted as a nurse crop for alfalfa or other hay seedings, or grown alone. Planting too early or too late can reduce forage yield. Plus, it dies out over winter, so it protects soil without causing planting problems next spring. Some processors however may prefer hay cut at a different development stage, so check with your exporter before cutting. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development's Agriculture and Food division is committed to growing and protecting WA's agriculture and food sector. Calculating / estimating seeding rates In addition to being a favored spring-planted companion or cover crop for forage seedings, they have historically been harvested as a cash grain crop. Soybeans can be harvested as a hay or silage crop. Oats are grown in every county in North Dakota, with the major area of production in the southwestern quarter of the state. Rain over 12mm on cut hay may drastically downgrade it compared to hay left standing for an extra two weeks. following hail damage or an early frost). Oats for grain generally are harvested with a combine. Bruce Anderson Nebraska Extension Forage Specialist. Oats can also be baled for hay when it's between the boot and early-heading stage.” This month's digital sponsors: KEYWORDS Oat for hay oats for forage oats forage crop planting oats Sowing oat seed. Some parts of this site work best with JavaScript enabled. With good moisture, oats will be ready to graze about 6 to 8 weeks after emergence. But when they're planted for grazing, an additional 30 lbs/acre of nitrogen are recommended. When oat grass hay is correctly managed using optimal fertilization programs, we can increase fiber digestion and growth of the plant while minimizing water soluble carbohydrates (Malik et al., 2011). When compared to alfalfa cut at the same level of maturity, oat grass hay is lower in crude protein and lower in digestible energy. To plant oats, drill about 3 bushels of oats per acre in early August for maximum yield potential. Shifts toward earlier plantings of oats have been shown to have significant benefits on oat grain and hay yields. Our target planting date is late March to early April. Even flying oats onto corn fields severely damaged by weather or to be chopped early for silage can work, although rye tends to work better for flying on seed. Oats are able to be grown as both hay and grain. The oat crop is grown specifically for hay instead of harvested for grain. Oats seeded on August 1st would typically be ready to harvest in early-October. Many producers plant field peas with oats or another small grain as an annual forage crop. "Oats may be successfully planted no-till," Martin says. per acre i a goosd companion crop for spring seedings. Also, don't suddenly turn livestock out on oat pasture if they have been grazing short or dry pastures. There are specific requirements for hay for the export market that are different to usual on-farm requirements. 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