0000003853 00000 n It has been aptly named as the ‘Material of a Thousand Uses’. Formation of Bakelite Jaime Leigh Plym Performed September 16, 2015 Organic Chemistry II - CHM2211 ABSTRACT Bakelite was formed by a INTRODUCTION Bakelite is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin and is one of the earliest commercial plastics. Because of its excellent insulating properties, Bakelite was also the first commercially produced synthetic resin, replacing shellac and hard rubber in parts for the electric power industry as well as in home appliances. When chemists began to recognize that many natural resins and fibers were polymers, Baekeland investigated the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde. We cannot deny the presence of polymers in our lives. 8 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 10 /H [ 1221 205 ] /L 23489 /E 13641 /N 2 /T 23212 >> endobj xref 8 38 0000000016 00000 n They are hard, rigid and brittle due to cross-linked structure, e.g., bakelite, melamine, etc. "U�x �fb��� �30�2p�+�����{b���� ��-2p�a0`X��t�[EF��=�A*’���6� �OZ endstream endobj 45 0 obj 100 endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 7 0 R /Resources 11 0 R /Contents [ 21 0 R 23 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 11 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageC /ImageI ] /Font << /F2 34 0 R /TT2 16 0 R /TT4 12 0 R /TT6 13 0 R /TT8 25 0 R >> /XObject << /Im1 43 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 41 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs5 18 0 R /Cs9 19 0 R >> >> endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 121 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 1000 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 0 0 0 0 500 0 722 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 667 0 0 0 611 778 0 0 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 0 556 278 833 556 500 556 0 444 389 333 556 0 722 0 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman,Bold /FontDescriptor 14 0 R >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 111 /Widths [ 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 584 0 0 0 0 0 0 556 0 0 556 0 0 556 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 722 0 0 0 0 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 778 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 556 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /Arial /FontDescriptor 17 0 R >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -184 -307 1089 1026 ] /FontName /TimesNewRoman,Bold /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 133 >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -167 -307 1009 1007 ] /FontName /TimesNewRoman /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 0 >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 122 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 833 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 333 250 0 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 0 0 278 0 0 0 0 444 0 722 667 667 722 0 0 0 0 333 0 0 0 889 0 0 556 0 0 0 611 0 0 944 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 0 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman /FontDescriptor 15 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 905 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -211 /Flags 32 /FontBBox [ -222 -325 1072 1037 ] /FontName /Arial /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 0 >> endobj 18 0 obj [ /CalRGB << /WhitePoint [ 0.9505 1 1.089 ] /Gamma [ 2.22221 2.22221 2.22221 ] /Matrix [ 0.4124 0.2126 0.0193 0.3576 0.71519 0.1192 0.1805 0.0722 0.9505 ] >> ] endobj 19 0 obj [ /Indexed 18 0 R 255 42 0 R ] endobj 20 0 obj 860 endobj 21 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 20 0 R >> stream Moreover, the resin would tolerate considerable amounts of inert ingredients and therefore could be modified through the incorporation of various fillers. 0000002651 00000 n So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. When made with this procedure, it is often an amber clear solid. The structure, properties and uses of Bakelite. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. Both stages A and B could be brought to a completely cured thermoset C stage (Bakelite C, or true Bakelite) by being heated under pressure. 0000001870 00000 n They are formed through the reaction of phenol with formaldehyde, followed by cross-linking of the polymeric chains. α-synuclein accumulation into dopaminergic neurons is a pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease. The A resin (resol) could be made directly into a usable plastic, or it could be brought to a solid B stage (resitol) in which, though almost infusible and insoluble, it could still be ground into powder and then softened by heat to a final shape in a mold. For thousands of years, humans used stone to fashion tools. A condensation polymerization reaction of phenol and formaldehyde results in the formation of Bakelite. In the 1920s it was widely used in knobs, dials, circuitry panels, and even cabinets for radios, and it was also employed in the electrical systems of automobiles. Neoprene (CR), also called polychloroprene or chloroprene rubber, synthetic rubber produced by the polymerization (or linking together of single molecules into giant, multiple-unit molecules) of chloroprene. Bakelite is one of the earliest commercial plastics. Some quantity of reaction mixture is taken in a beaker and placed on a white paper towel. Owing to the inclusion of fillers and reinforcement, Bakelite products were almost always opaque and dark-coloured. 0000001426 00000 n (1) Nylon 6 (2) Bakelite (3) Nylon 6, 6 (4) Terylene. Bakelite was the first FRP discovered by Dr. Baekeland. 0000007642 00000 n

Bakelite is the trade name for phenol formaldehyde resin. The injection pressure of bakelite is generally between 3-5 kb/cm2, and it can be produced according to different products and product structures by selecting appropriate pressure. Bakelite is a plastic that is used for making many products, ranging from telephones, electrical gadgets, jewelry, to saucepan handles. For general molded parts, wood flour was preferred, but, where heat resistance, impact strength, or electrical properties were involved, other fillers such as cotton flock, asbestos, and chopped fabric were used. In the growing consumer market of the 1930s and after, Bakelite faced competition from other thermosetting resins such as urea formaldehyde and melamine formaldehyde and from new thermoplastic resins such as cellulose acetate, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, and polystyrene. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Phenol-formaldehyde resins, as a group, are formed by a step-growth polymerization reaction that can be either acid- or base-catalysed.Since formaldehyde exists predominantly in solution as a dynamic equilibrium of methylene glycol oligomers, the concentration of the reactive form of formaldehyde depends on temperature and pH. H�b```e``9 Formation of Bakelite follows : (1) Electrophilic substitution followed by condensation. 0000006767 00000 n It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. 0000005669 00000 n Solution: The formation of nylon -6 involves the hydrolysis of caprolactum which is a monomer. 0000006047 00000 n Synthesis of Bekelite(Phenol Formaldehyde Resin) By Sukhdev Patsariya (HOD Chemistry) Patsariya Classes Gwalior (MP) Mob 9039499897 Thank you for watching. Bakelite is a space-network polymer. Melting is a process whereby a collection of atoms/molecules that are held together by weak forces are provided sufficient energy so that the individual molecules can separate from each other. Bakelite is still commonly used for dominoes, mah-jongg tiles, checkers, and chess pieces. Some 5,000 years ago, we learned how to make alloys of copper, and the Bronze Age began. The beginning of the modern plastics industry is often dated to Baekeland’s first patent application in 1907 and to the founding of his General Bakelite Company in 1910. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well … 10 to 12ml of conc. This phenol-formaldehyde resin is a thermosetting polymer. 0000011551 00000 n 0000003923 00000 n Formation and structure. 0000002301 00000 n %PDF-1.2 %���� History is shaped by the materials we develop and use. Bakelite is a polymer made up of the monomers phenol and formaldehyde. 0000005844 00000 n 0000009136 00000 n 0000001221 00000 n For the making of laminated structures, sheets of paper or fabric were impregnated with the resin in an alcohol solution and then heated under pressure to form tough, rigid assemblies. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Phenol-formaldehyde resins are heat-resistant and waterproof, though somewhat brittle. 0000004882 00000 n Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. In the structure of Bakelite, the phenol and formaldehyde are cross-linked. Hence option (1) is the answer. Omissions? Since the formation of bakelite is by Lederer Manassereaction which proceeds through electrophilic aromatic substitutionon phenol, its path is similar to that in C- acylation and not O-acylation. O-acylation: acylating agent (acyl chloride or anhydride).This is the one which you have talked about in the question. The bakelite is converted into a fluid state by plasticization, and the fluid is injected into the cavity by … Unlike linear and branched polymers (see demonstration 25.2), which are composed of long molecules that make them more or less crystalline, space-network polymers are highly and irregularly cross-linked throughout the structure. They have excellent electrical insulating character. In 1909 Baekeland made the first public announcement of his invention, in a lecture before the New York section of the American Chemical Society. By 1910 Baekland had a semicommercial production operation established in his laboratory, and in 1911 General Bakelite began operations in Perth Amboy, N.J., U.S. These new plastics could be used to produce household products in virtually any hue and in varying degrees of clarity. The formation of which of the following polymers involves hydrolysis reaction? The term Bakelite is sometimes used in the resale market to indicate various types of early plastics, including Catalin and Faturan, which may be brightly colored, as well as items made of Bakelite material. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. 0000010609 00000 n Hydrochloric acid is added drop by drop by continuous stirring. 0000003902 00000 n Difference between novolac and Bakelite [structure ] Dear student, Novolac :linear stucture formed as a product of condensation reaction between phenol and for Learn to Create the Famous Tic Tac Toe Game in Our Free Robotics Webinar. Centuries later the Iron Age introduced iron as the material of choice.

When chemists began to recognize that many natural resins and fibers were polymers, Baekeland investigated the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. 0000007663 00000 n In the formation of Bakelite, the reaction mixture is prepared by mixing formaldehyde with phenol with glacial acetic acid under fume hood. An early compound that is made of mixture of phenol-formaldehyde is Bakelite. 0000001632 00000 n Water molecule is removed in the process. 0000009530 00000 n 0000001104 00000 n FABP3 is abundant in dopaminergic neurons and interacts with dopamine D2 receptors, specifically the long type (D2L). In 1939 Baekeland sold the Bakelite trademark to the Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation (now Union Carbide Corporation). Bakelite is an item a jewelry collector should keep an eye out for considering how prices have risen over the last few decades. Experiments with phenolic resins had actually preceded Baekeland’s work, beginning in 1872 with the work of German chemist Adolf von Baeyer, but these trials had succeeded only in producing viscous liquids or brittle solids of no apparent value. It is known for its electrically non-conductive and heat-resistant properties in radio and telephone casings and electrical insulators, and was used in diverse products such as kitchenware, jewellery, pipe stems, and children's toys. H�tU���0��.� (����� �Rd� ��:��! Bakelite set to rigid, hard, scratch resistant, in fusible, water resistance, insoluble solids, which are resistance to non-oxidising acids and many organic solvents. 0000006026 00000 n 1 Experiment 15: Exploring the World of Polymers Objective: In this experiment, you will explore a class of chemical compounds known as polymers.You will synthesize and modify polymers, test their properties and use a fabrication technique to produce an object from a polymer. Bakelite Structure. 0000009599 00000 n It is a polymer formed from a condensation reaction of phenol and formaldehyde. H�tUMo�0��W��Fĵ���plAHH�C#q�8�i��%A���p��P��x�of���ė]q�ut�Ek������PW5t���j 0,�oa������B7��P���,kg����g�$�ߙPy�51�� �X�v�F]�2�J���L�~h�N���&�)�#�oݧ™:�Pb�#� �C�|�ң�u����b¸�D:�)�5-�%a+ �O��'�ey����Ȧ���4.+��׮5��ʑ�!����I;J��iX�W]֊Q�n��9��}��$N+ɑǜu�C�8�0��o����-��p!�J�^�9��I�� O;M��"�N��J��tE:*P��7��Fيs� �Ku���Z]���������8s��u*"\�a�|^´�Y�i�$���,}����+l���d�i�D4]z �k���a�7����{�Tr"S����B�� 멙�����.u$��Q7TJx�Ğ�E��6/�FV'��MռPEFj9���e ��7?����IP,�Ҕ���u�Q�I � p+;�{M�Xה=r6�旐��A��5o���0Ca��ԩYډ��n�a�4q��Xl��2�&MF��[w=��Ji�y#�#dv�������~ѷ3� Tj�!��h֌5��غ�9o�m6_��N.���|\_>��;X����Y�7�,����6/���"쏆X�aB��%�D6�h� �\A��:yB��_eD�ɀ�U���q�`�{��@��� 4"�D���BF9���˼�8qٿ�g*��K���Li�7rܱ�y�3;��shk���V_ry��[�U-�D��_ ��� endstream endobj 22 0 obj 709 endobj 23 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 22 0 R >> stream Union Carbide sold the trademark in 1992 to the Georgia-Pacific Corporation, which employed Bakelite as a bonding agent for plywood and particleboard. Authentic bakelite jewelry can sell for thousands of dollars, so it's important you learn how to tell the difference between genuine and imposter plastic jewelry. He first produced a soluble phenol-formaldehyde resin called “Novolak,” which never became a market success. A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived from coal tar and wood alcohol (methanol), respectively, at that time. Bakelite, trademark of phenol-formaldehyde resin, trademarked synthetic resin invented in 1907 by Belgian-born American chemist Leo Hendrik Baekeland. A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived from coal tar and wood alcohol (methanol), respectively, at that time. In 1927 the Bakelite patent expired. Bakelite is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, developed in 1907–1909 by Belgian chemist Dr. Leo Baekeland. trailer << /Size 46 /Info 6 0 R /Root 9 0 R /Prev 23203 /ID[<07cfea1e1e4fd1e0ec068afdaef64e3c><07cfea1e1e4fd1e0ec068afdaef64e3c>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 9 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 7 0 R /OpenAction [ 10 0 R /XYZ null null null ] /PageMode /UseNone >> endobj 44 0 obj << /S 44 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 45 0 R >> stream In the 1930s cast Bakelite, along with many other competing phenolic resins, enjoyed a vogue in colourful costume jewelry and novelties. 11. We are surrounded by objects, most of which, some way or the other have a polymer associated with them. 12. 0000004861 00000 n asked Jan 12, 2020 in Chemistry by MoniKumari ( 52.0k points) jee main 2020 0000009246 00000 n )?�+nE��Cr$M����YI���~O�*���. Novolac Formation: When phenol and formaldehyde are heated in the excess of phenol (P/F > 1) with an acid catalyst, such as HCl, H 2 SO 4 or oxalic acid, a linear polymer is formed which is thermoplastic in nature and is known as Novolac. Baekeland was able to stop the reaction while the resin was still in a liquid state, which he called the A stage. Bakelite items, particularly jewelry and radios, have become a popular collectible. We previously demonstrated that fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP3) is critical for α-synuclein uptake and propagation to accumulate in dopaminergic neurons. 0000003032 00000 n Formation of Bakelite follows electrophilic substitution reaction of phenol with formaldehyde followed by condensation. To make it stronger and to make more of it, filler such as sawdust is often added. PF resin is formed when molecules of phenol (C. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In a plastics market virtually monopolized by celluloid, a highly flammable material that dissolved readily and softened with heat, Bakelite found ready acceptance because it could be made insoluble and infusible. The introduction of Bakelitethe worlds first synthetic plasticin 1907 marked the introduction of the Polymer Age. 0000006788 00000 n Phenol is obtained from coal tar, and formaldehyde is obtained from methanol. 0000010588 00000 n 0000011690 00000 n 0000008365 00000 n FORMATION OF POLYTETRAFLUROETHYLENE or TEFLON or PTFE: It is formed when chloroform is treated with the hydrofluoric acid and antimony trifluoride . 0000009620 00000 n Updates? Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/Bakelite. 0000011473 00000 n Reactions: SbF3 800oC CHCl3 ———→ CHF2Cl ————→ CF2 = CF2 HF –HCl (b.pt. 0000008386 00000 n This made it the first truly synthetic resin, representing a significant advance over earlier plastics that were based on modified natural materials. Corrections? 0000002845 00000 n 0000003673 00000 n MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions. ... Chemical bonding and molecular structure (338) Chemical thermodynamics (359) Solutions (192) Equilibrium (233) Redox reactions and electrochemistry (191) Chemical kinetics (226) (ii) Reactions involving cleavage of C-OH bond-formation of anhydride, reactions with PCl5, PCl3, SOCl2, esterification and reaction with ammonia (iii) Reactions involving -COOH group-reduction, decarboxylation (iv) Substitution reactions in the hydrocarbon part - halogenation and ring substitution, Uses of carboxylic acids. 0000001405 00000 n 0000003494 00000 n It was Baekeland who succeeded in controlling the phenol-formaldehyde condensation reaction to produce the first synthetic resin. However, they are attacked by alkalies due to the presence of free hydroxyl groups in their structure. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde.

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