Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Battle_of_the_Granicus/. The Persian army consisted predominantly of cavalry but it also had a substantial number of Greek mercenary infantry. Battle of Granicus, (May 334 bce). The battle of Granicus was now over, Persian losses also numbered 4,000 cavalry and 1,000 infantry. Darius finally advanced against him but was defeated at Issus in the autumn of 333. The Greek mercenary commander’s strategy had been sound. Foss and E. Badian, “The Battle of the Granicus: A New Look,” in Ancient Macedonia II, Thessaloniki, 1977, pp. For a brief moment, both armies stood across from each other in silence. How wide was the river? Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-the-Granicus-334BCE. Web. Memnon himself led the Persian center. fight for him without question. The spoils of war - gold and rich cloth - were sent home to Alexander’s mother Olympias. Omissions? By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In the early years of Alexander’s career as ruler of Macedonia and leader of the army, his determination for conquest was shared by his men. Alexander the Great in Combatby Warner Brothers (Copyright, fair use). Battle Granicus-en.svg; Autor: Battle Granicus-en.svg: Andrei Nacu, from the English Wiki; derivative work: Gizmo II ¿Eu? Thank you! Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Please move this article to Battle of the Granicus River, if you could.--Ariobarza 13:29, 1 March 2008 (UTC)Ariobarza talk Oppose This (or rather Battle of the Granicus, where the article actually is) is the usual English name, and the only meaning of Granicus; the proposed title is as redundant and unnatural as Battle of the Marne River. He entered the ford, keeping his line always extended obliquely in the direction in which the stream turned itself aside, in order that the Persians might not fall upon him as he was emerging from the water with his men in column, but that he himself might, as far as practicable, encounter them with a broad line. 2 They are of a piece with Diodorus' account of the battle at Thebes in 335 B.C., when the Thebans were portrayed as fighting a battle ‘in front of the city’ (as the Trojans did), Alexander made unsporting use of reserves and the contest was in two rounds, the first remarkable for the epic use of missiles (Diod. Fought in northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes. Soon, however, he would meet the King of Persia himself. Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor. The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. However, the battle very nearly cost Alexander his life. The statues were eventually set up in Dium, a city in Macedon at the foot of Mount Ol… In addition, the one weapon unique to the Persians, the scythed chariot, was almost useless on the muddy riverbank. The battle on the Granicus [16.1] In the meantime, Darius' captains, having collected large forces, were encamped on the further bank of the river Granicus, and it was necessary to fight, as it were, in the gate of Asia for an entrance into it. Related Content For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 20 Dec 2011. Otras versiones: español English français magyar македонски Esta es una imagen retocada, lo que significa que ha sido alterada digitalmente de su versión original. They were intent upon attacking the Macedonians in the water where the footing was slippery and difficult. Fought in Northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy , it was here where Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes . Upon arriving on the opposite bank of the river, the fight turned to a hand-to-hand confrontation. In addition, the one weapon unique to the Persians, the scythed chariot, was almost useless on the muddy riverbank. Ancient History Encyclopedia. By Alexanders order, all who had fallen in the Battle of the Granicus, including the Persian leaders and Greek mercenaries, were buried with military honors. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. The Battle of the Granicus River. At the Granicus, as has been noted, Alexander, in Arrian’s account, had to fight his way across the river, but in the account of Diodorus, the battle is fought on the other side of the river. Battle of the Granicus (Alexandros) The Battle of the Granicus was the only major battle during the Macedonian Invasion of Asia, which saw the confrontation of the Macedonian and Greek invasion force, under the command of Alexander III, against the forces of the Achaemenid Empire. Darius’s Greek mercenaries were largely massacred, but…, …an Achaemenid army at the Granicus and, by the following year, had won most of Asia Minor and reached Cilicia. Upon stabilizing rebellious conditions among the various Greek city-states, he crossed the Hellespont and travelled along the northern coast of Anatolia (present-day Turkey) avoiding the mountain ranges of the northern uplands to the site of ancient Troy. He ordered Lysippus, considered perhaps the greatest sculptor of the day, to make bronze statues of the 25 Companion cavalrymen who fell in the initial feint attack. The result of the Granicus battle must have reaffirmed the faith placed by the Persian king, Darius III, in Memnon. Together with the lack of true leadership - besides Memnon - the battle was lost before it was begun. Although causing considerable damage to the attacking center, the Persian weaponry did not match well against the Macedonians – light javelins versus 15-foot lances. To honor all who had died in battle, Alexander buried both Greek and Persians alike (although the Persians normally burned their dead). Ancient History Encyclopedia. As more Persians joined the attack against the Macedonian center, attention was drawn away from Alexander. To the surviving relatives of his fallen soldiers, Alexander granted immunity from taxation and public service. Wasson, Donald L. "Battle of the Granicus." It allowed Alexander to replenish his empty supply stores and encouraged some key Greek states to rebel against the Persians. The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. While Alexander and his men were at Troy, the Persians held a council of local satraps to discuss the arrival of the young Macedonian and possible strategies to defend against him. Little of him was known to the Persians and King Darius felt little or no inclination to meet him, believing, instead, his trusted commander, Memnon, and the local governors (or satraps) could handle the young upstart. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The Battle of Granicus River - 334 BCThe Battle of Granicus was the first battle between Alexander The Great and the Persian Empire. Spithridates, another Persian commander, raised his own weapon to attack Alexander, but Cleitus the Black attacked him first, severing Spithridates’s arm, saving Alexander’s life. Battle of Granicus, (May 334 bce). Alexander had lined his forces on the western banks of the river; Parmenion commanded the left while Alexander (with his eight bodyguards), his Companion cavalry forces, and light troops stationed themselves on the far right. The Greeks lost around 300 to 400 men and the Persians up to 4,000, mostly as they retreated from the battle. He doesn't mention the aborted attack the evening before. The Battle of the Granicus was the first major engagement between Alexander III the Great commanding his army of Macedonians, Greeks, and Thracians facing off with the vast armies of the Achaemenid Empire under the high command of Darius III. in southern Anatolia he defeated a much larger force under the direct command of Darius. One unique and problematic situation for the Persians was the positioning of their cavalry on the banks of the Granicus; the Greek mercenary infantry - 5,000 strong - was placed behind them. Start studying The Battle of Granicus. His army consisted chiefly of Macedonians, but with some allied Greeks. 2) The river bed was uneven, meaning the water was deep in places and hard to cross. One unique and problematic situation for the Persians was the positioning of their cavalry on the banks of the Granicus; the Greek mercenary infantry - 5,000 strong - was placed behind them. They, of course, considered Persian warfare superior to the tactics of invading Greeks. And so in May 334 BC the Persian and Macedonian armies faced each other on opposite sides of the Granicus River. A map showing the locations of battles in ancient Greece. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Fought in Northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes. Back home, statues honoring the 25 fallen Companions were erected at the sanctuary of Zeus at Dium near Mount Olympus. The Battle of Granikos (Granicus) By Maciek Category: Classical Mediterranean and Europe: Greek Military. Donald has taught Ancient, Medieval and U.S. History at Lincoln College (Normal, Illinois)and has always been and will always be a student of history, ever since learning about Alexander the Great. The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. Alexander became the aggressor sending, from the center, Companion cavalry, lancers and light troops across the river first. 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