While some religions adopted a pantheistic worldview, most follow a polytheistic system with various gods, spirits and other supernatural beings. Such separation and subsequent contemplation of the nature and sources of pure energy or feelings serves to help participants manage and accept them when they arise in mundane contexts. :���ݞ7��\�_��JQIS�S-[a�, I_�A,Y�ݎK�c���AK�8�[�$��b��IU��-�TM�g�,���Qlm����"Al�QG> ���@(� Majority of people in Africa believe that spirits dwell in . Nowadays African Religion systems are at risk because of the changes in natural environments, cultural changes on a global scale, economic and political issues. endobj In this second edition, Dr Mbiti has updated his material to include the involvement of women in religion, and the potential unity to be found in what was once thought to be a mass of quite separate religions. 2. … For the Kikuyu, according to their primary supreme creator, Ngai, acting through the lesser deities, is believed to speak to and be capable of guiding the virtuous person as one's conscience. OLUPONA: If we lose traditional African religions, we would also lose or continue to seriously undermine the African practice of rites of passage such as the much cherished age-grade initiations, which have for so long integrated and bought Africans together under a common understanding, or worldview. Sc i., 2010, 1(2): 209-218 . African Traditional Religion: A Definition (1973), Omosade Awolalu in Yoruba Belief and Sacrificial Rites and John Mbiti in The Concept of God in Africa (1970) are a few examples of postcolonial scholars of religion who have resisted and denounced colonial idea that Africans do not know God. Most indigenous African religions have a dualistic concept of the person. B. Foundational Religious Practices. endobj Umewaen: Journal of Benin & Edoid Studies: Osweego, NY. "Traditional Religion", in his. The religion does not separate believers from unbelievers. It does not exist in a vacuum or up there in the blues but among humans. John S. Mbiti, in his book Introduction to African Religion (1977: 63-66) argues that, “in African societies sacrifice was very common and that most, involved shedding of blood of a human being or an animal.” He adds that in African societies, life is closely associated with blood. Among Nilo-Saharan speakers is the belief in Divinity; evil is caused by divine judgement and retribution; prophets as middlemen between Divinity and man. The situation is, however, not the same in Africa. The names which various African communities give to God project their best expression of Him in their religious experiences. The Africans are known to be intensely religious people. For Christianity, it is the first century AD, and maybe beyond; and for Islam the seventh century. [32], Followers of traditional African religions pray to various spirits as well as to their ancestors. The reason is certainly associated with the religious propensities of man. Cf. Ray says, “It is true that that religion is neither an African word nor an indigenous concept.” Because the word is absent from the vernacular languages, scholars use the term to refer to something that Africans in a traditional setting do not recognize or experience. The Concept of Health and Wholeness in Traditional African Religion and Social Medicine Onah Gregory Ajima* and Eyong Usang Ubana Department of Religious Studies, University of Calabar, Calabar CRS, Nigeria Abstract African Traditional Religion and medicine are integral parts of life and culture of the Africans and have greatly 4. Traditional African approaches in the light of natural values, and of modern secular attitude If we are going to speak of traditional African concepts and customs regarding marriage and the family, a few clarifications are called for. In this second edition, Dr Mbiti has updated his material to include the involvement of women in religion, and the potential unity to be found in what was once thought to be a mass of quite separate religions. The mole and man are to blame for the fall and the consequence of it [death]. [26][20][21][27], Traditional African medicine is also directly linked to traditional African religions. Since Africa is a large continent with many ethnic groups and cultures, there is not one single technique of casting divination. The term totemism has been used to characterize a cluster of traits in the religion and in the social organization of many peoples. One religious ceremony practiced in Gabon and Cameroon is the Okuyi, practiced by several Bantu ethnic groups. Egwu (2001) observes religion not only because of the problem of objectivity one encounters in defining but is emotion laden, even more so because of the difficulty of penetrating the "inner essence" of religion. [18], Traditional African religions can be broken down into linguistic cultural groups, with common themes. This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 15:48. Therefore, in African traditional set up, religion is almost synonymous with culture. [40] With a long farming tradition, the Serer high priests and priestesses (Saltigue) deliver yearly sermons at the Xooy Ceremony (divination ceremony) in Fatick before Yoonir's phase in order to predict winter months and enable farmers to start planting.[41]. Some castings are done using sacred divination plates made of wood or performed on the ground (often within a circle). "Religions of South Africa" pp. worth. The concept of culture includes not With African Traditional Religions you must be much more careful about speaking about belief systems in the same way, because Africans will actually tolerate quite a wide variety of beliefs as long as it supports the same rituals or certain rituals or ritualistic explanations of why this is being done or why this is being believed. At definition and conception a way of life Studies: Osweego,.... Religion, there seem to be no distinction between man and the consequence of it through different ways primarily... 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